Sunday, 13 March 2011

Charge Anomaly confirmed

The results below, from the switched-charge experiment (
12 May 2008), show that the total value of charge-separation in the isolated test circuit increased by approximately 25% from the initial state of the circuit, after the switched transfer of charge from the input capacitor to the output capacitor

0.299 Coulombs of charge-separation were removed from the input capacitor, C1  

0.913 Coulombs of charge-separation were added to the output capacitor, C3

(any charge on the only other two capacitors in the circuit - 500uF and 0.1uF - was small enough to ignore by comparison with that on C1 & C3)

 the final state of charge in the circuit was significantly different from that expected by conventional circuit analysis - the circuit had gained an anomalous excess of charge-separation!

Charge Results:
Input cap, C1: 0.299F
Start volts: 8.0V
Start charge: 2.392Coulombs

Final volts: 7.0V
Final charge: 2.093C

Output cap, C3: 0.342F
Output volts: 2.67V
Output charge: 0.913C

charge switched from input to output capacitor, then discharged by S2

Total start charge: 2.392C
Total end charge: 2.093 + 0.913 = 3.006C

(ignoring charge on switching cap, C2, 500uF)

Switched-charge test period: 45.8s
cycle period: 0.85ms
charge period: 0.17ms
charge/cycle duty: 0.17/0.85 = 20%

Stand-alone switched-charge experiment setup:-
(12 May 2008 )

the circuit was constructed to transfer charge from an input capacitor to an output capacitor, via a switching capacitor and inductor, using a number of repeated cycles to switch a small amount of charge in each cycle

the switching was achieved using MOSFET devices driven by a free-running oscillator constructed using NAND gates from a CMOS logic device

the entire circuit was powered solely by the initial charge in the input capacitor

the only external connection was to a DVM, used to monitor the voltage on the input capacitor

the test achieved the same results, regardless of whether the DVM was connected for the full duration of the test or if it was disconnected at the start and only reconnected a few seconds before the end

Open switch S1, close switch S2;
Monitor C1 volts with DVM;
Charge C1 to approx 9V;
When C1 voltage approaches 8V then open S2;
As Voltage on C1 measures 8V, start timer &
  Close S1, to connect C1 into circuit;
When voltage on C1 reaches 7V, stop timer &
open S1;
  measure voltage on C3 with DVM;

Switched-charge experiment schematic

Parts list:
R1: 12K 0.25W
R2: 100K 0.25W variable
R3: 100K 0.25W variable
C1: 0.299F (4x1F, 2.3V series)
C2: 500uF 16V
C3: 0.342F (4x1F, 2.3V series)
C4: 0.1uF ceramic
D1: OA93
D2: 1N914
D3: 1N914
Q1: FDN304P
Q2: IRF540N
L1: 2.5mH
U1-U4: 4093B Quad Schmitt NAND